What is cold welding? Pros & Cons

When two pieces of metal touch in the absence of oxygen, they can sometimes form a weld.  This process is called cold welding and it’s something that you’ll want to be aware of when working with metal.

This blog post will explain what cold welding is and how it works. We’ll also discuss some of the potential dangers associated with this process. Read on to learn more!

cold welding (How It Works & Its Applications?)

Cold welding is a solid-state welding process in which two clean, flat surfaces are brought into contact and pressure is applied, causing the atoms at the interface to join together at low temperatures.

It is typically used to join metals that are not compatible with traditional welding methods such as aluminum and stainless steel. 

Cold welding can also be used to join dissimilar metals such as copper and aluminum. The process is often used in the aerospace and automotive industries.

How does it work?

The working of cold welding is based on the principle of pressure welding. In this process, two pieces of metal are brought into contact with each other under high pressure. 

The high pressure causes the atoms of the two pieces of metal to interlock, thus bonding the two pieces together. To promote bonding, the weld area is cooled with a coolant, typically water.

Cold welding can be used to join most metals and alloys including aluminum, brass, copper, iron, magnesium, nickel, silver, stainless steel, tin, titanium, tungsten and zinc.

The process is most commonly used to join metals that are non-reactive and have low melting points such as aluminum and brass. The key to cold welding is the use of pressure and a coolant to create an environment in which the metal surfaces can bond.

When done correctly, cold welding can create a strong joint that is as strong as or stronger than the base metal. The pressure required for cold welding to occur is typically much higher than the atmospheric pressure.

In some cases, it can be as high as 10,000 pounds per square inch (70 M Pa)Cold welding is also used in the semiconductor industry to create electrical connections between thin metal wires.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cold Welding

There are both advantages and disadvantages to cold welding.


  1. No need for heat or electricity: Since cold welding relies on pressure and contact between two surfaces to weld them together, there is no need for heat or electricity. This makes it a very safe process to use.
  2. Energy efficient: Cold welding is a very energy-efficient process since there is no heat involved.
  3. Environmentally friendly: Cold welding does not produce any fumes or emissions, making it a very environmentally friendly process.
  4. Strong welds: Cold welding can create very strong welds, especially when used in conjunction with other methods such as adhesive bonding or riveting.
  5. Versatile: Cold welding can be used on a variety of materials, including metals, plastics and ceramics.
  6. Easy to learn: Cold welding is a relatively simple process that is easy to learn and perform.


  1. Limited applications: Cold welding is limited to applications where the two surfaces to be joined are clean, smooth and flat. It cannot be used on curved or irregular surfaces.
  2. Not suitable for all materials: While cold welding can be used on a variety of materials, it is not suitable for all of them. In particular, it is not effective on certain plastics and metals.
  3. Requires specialized equipment: To cold weld properly, you need to have access to specialized equipment. This can be expensive and may not be available to everyone.
  4. Time-consuming: Cold welding is a slower process than other welding methods, such as arc welding. This can make it impractical for some applications.
  5. Cannot be used on all materials: There are some materials, such as aluminum and magnesium, that cannot be cold welded.
  6. Not suitable for large projects: Due to its time-consuming nature, cold welding is not practical for large projects. It is better suited for smaller jobs.

Applications of cold welding

  1. Automotive industry: The automotive industry uses cold welding for a variety of applications, such as joining exhaust systems, engine blocks and transmission housings.
  2. Aviation industry: In the aviation industry, cold welding is used to join titanium airplane components. This type of welding is also used to repair aircraft parts that have been damaged.
  3. Electronics industry: The electronics industry uses cold welding to join electronic components, such as semiconductors and printed circuit boards.
  4. Medical Industry: The medical industry uses cold welding to join implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and artificial joints.
  5. Jewelry industry: The jewelry industry uses cold welding to join precious metals, such as gold and silver.
  6. Materials research & development: Materials research & development laboratories use cold welding to join materials for testing and analysis.

How to do cold welding yourself?

  • First, you will need to clean the surfaces that you intend to weld. Use a wire brush or sandpaper to remove any rust, dirt or debris.
  • Next, apply a thin layer of cold welding compound to both surfaces.
  • Once the cold welding compound is in place, use a clamp or vise to hold the two pieces of metal together.
  • Use an electric welder to weld the two pieces of metal together. Start at the edges and work your way toward the center. 
  • Apply a small amount of pressure while welding to ensure a strong bond. Let the weld cool for a few minutes before removing the clamp or vise.

Safety precautions when working with cold welding

When working with cold welding, always take the following safety precautions:

  • Wear proper safety gear: Safety gear includes gloves, goggles and a face mask to protect your eyes, skin and lungs from exposure to welding fumes.
  • Work in a ventilated area: If possible, work outdoors or in a well-ventilated area to reduce your exposure to welding fumes.
  • Use a dust mask or respirator: A dust mask or respirator will help protect your lungs from exposure to welding fumes.
  • Avoid welding in confined spaces: Welding in confined spaces can increase your risk of exposure to welding fumes. If you must weld in a confined space, make sure the area is well-ventilated.
  • Don’t weld near flammable materials: Before beginning any welding project, remove all flammable materials from the work area. To prevent fires, flammable materials such as paper, wood and gasoline are away from your welding area.
  • Avoid breathing welding fumes: Welding fumes can contain harmful chemicals. Avoid breathing in welding fumes by wearing a respirator.
  • Shut off all gas cylinders when not in use: Be sure to shut off all gas cylinders when you are finished welding. Leaving a gas cylinder open can cause a fire or explosion.
  • Store gas cylinders in a cool, dry place: Store gas cylinders in a cool, dry place away from heat sources. Heat can cause the pressure inside the cylinder to build up, which can lead to an explosion.

FAQs – cold welding

Is cold welding better than welding?

There are pros and cons to both cold welding and welding. Cold welding is faster and doesn’t require any heat, which means there’s less risk of damaging the materials being joined.

However, cold welding is more likely to create a weaker joint than welding, so it may not be the best choice for critical applications.

Ultimately, the decision of which method to use depends on the project’s specific needs.

Is cold welding a strong weld?

There is no definitive answer to this question since the strength of a cold weld can vary depending on the materials being joined and the quality of the joint. In general, however, cold welding is not as strong as welding, it can still create a decent joint. 

This is because cold welding doesn’t melt the materials being joined together, which can create a weaker bond.

Do you need gas to cold weld?

No, you do not need gas to cold weld. Cold welding is a process that does not require heat organs. The two surfaces are simply pressed together with enough force to overcome the surface tension and allow the atoms of one surface to flow into the other.

This work-hardening of the surfaces produces a metallurgical bond between them, you do not need gas to cold well. This is one of the advantages of cold welding over welding, which requires an external heat source.

Cold welding uses pressure and friction to join two pieces of metal together. This means there’s no risk of damaging the materials being joined with too much heat.

How thick can you cold weld?

The answer to this question depends on the materials being joined and the welding process used. In general, cold welding can be used to join materials with a thickness of up to 3 mm (0.12 inches). 

However, some processes can weld materials with a thickness of up to 6 mm (0.24 inches).

Can you cold weld stainless steel?

Yes, cold welding can be used to join stainless steel. Cold welding is often used to weld stainless steel pipes and tubing. However, the process is not as common as other methods of joining stainless steel, such as welding or brazing.

Wrap Up

Cold welding is a process where two pieces of metal are joined together without the use of heat or other traditional forms of welding.

The process often takes place at low temperatures, making it an ideal method for joining materials that cannot withstand high levels of heat. Cold welding can be used to create strong and permanent bonds between metals and has a wide range of applications in industry and manufacturing.

If you’re looking for a way to join two pieces of metal without using heat, cold welding may be the perfect solution for your needs.